Diseases in the Aquarium - Part VIII
A nearly complete guide to Fish Diseases

An Article by George J. Reclos

List of Active Ingredients (continued)

tetracycline hydrochloride Dropsy, Malawi bloat, Fin rot, Systemic bacterial infections. WARNING : This medication is photosensitive; turn lights off and cover the tank throughout treatment WARNING: some resistant strains to tetracycline exist. If this is the case, you may switch to minocycline. Always try tetracycline first - use minocycline as the last resort.
Thiosulfate sodium
Seven mg of sodium thiosulfate will neutralize 1 mg of chlorine.
Victoria green

List of aquarium medications by some leading companies

Aquarium Pharmaceuticals – Active ingredients

benzaldehyde green - AP Liquid Super ICH Cure, AP Super Ich Cure
copper sulphate - AP General Cure
erythromucin - AP EM Tablets
furazolidone - AP Furan-2
methylene blue trihydrate - Furan-2
metroidazole - AP General Cure
naladixic acid (water soluble) AP Nala-Gram
neutroflavine - AP Fungus Cure, AP Liquid Fungus Cure
nitrofurazone - AP Super ICH Cure, AP Furan-2
povidone/colloid mixture - AP Liquid Super Ich Cure, AP Liquid Fungus Cure
sulfacetamide - AP Triple Sulfa
sulfamethazine - AP Triple Sulfa
sulfathiazole - AP Triple Sulfa
tetracycline hydrochloride - AP T.C. Capsules
trichlorfon - AP General Cure
Victoria green B - AP Fungus Cure

Liquid Super Ich Cure

Active Ingredients : benzaldehyde green, povidone/colloid mixture
An effective liquid treatment for ich (ichthyophthirius). Kills Ich - usually within 24 hours

Liquid Fungus Cure

Active Ingredients: neutroflavine, povidone/colloid mixture
For the treatment of saprolgenia fungus infections. Contains a synthetic slime coating. Prevents secondary infection.

Super Ich Cure

Active Ingredients: benzaldehyde green, nitrofurazone
For the treatment of ICH (ichthyophhirius) a highly contagious disease sometimes called white spot disease

General Cure

Active Ingredients: copper sulphate, trichlorfon, metronidazole
Treats a wide variety of of parasitic diseases including velvet (oodinium), anchor worm (lernia), fish lice.
Available Sizes

Fungus Cure

Active Ingredients: Neutroflavine, Victoria green B
Treats saprolgenia Fungus infections. Symptoms appear as tufts of cotton or white patches on the fish. Commonly known as mouth fungus, eye fungus, fin and tail rot and body slime.
Sizes Available:

T.C. Capsules

Active Ingredient: tetracycline hydrochloride (250 mg)
Tetracycline first aid for the treatment of common diseases such as tail rot, mouth fungus and gill disease. Aquarium filtration will not affect treatment.

Triple Sulfa

Active Ingredients: sulfamethazine, sulfacetamide, sulfathiazole
A special formula of three medications plus an antibiotic to effctively treat furunculosis (aeromonas), fin and tail rot, cotton mouth disease, body slime and eye cloud for both fresh and saltwater fish.

EM Tablets

Active Ingredient: Erythromycin (200 mg)
For the fresh and saltwater treatment of erythromycine susceptible bacterial diseases such as body slime, mouth fungus, furunculosis (open lesions), and hemorrhagic septicemia (blood spots without sign of skin damage). Inhibits disease spread when introducing new fish into an aquarium. Can be used with any ich, fungus or parasite remedy to prevent secondary infection.

Active Ingredient: nalidixic acid (water soluble)
Used to treat stubborn gram negative bacterial infections such as: neon tetra disease, Malawi Bloat, hemmorhagic septicemia, swollen belly disease.
Furan Capsules

Active Ingredients: nitrofurazone, furazolidone, methylene blue trihydrate
Contains two furan compounds to combat a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacterial diseases, including gill disease, mouth fungus, furunculosis (aeromonas), black molly disease (columnaris), fin and tail rot and dropsy.



For disinfection of the aquarium water, e.g. when introducing new fish, and for disease treatment against ectoparasites (Ichthyophthirius, Costia and Chilodonella). For freshwater and saltwater fish. Add 2 drops per each 10 liotres of water once for prevention. Add 6 drops per each 10 litres of water for treatmenbt, repeat after three days if necessary.


The well-established remedy against Ichthyophthirius (white spot) and other skin parasites, such as Costia, Chilodonella and Trichodina, in fresh and saltwater aquariums. sera costapur reliably combats and removes the parasites.


Remedy against fungus (Saprolegnia) and skin and gill flukes in fresh water aquariums. sera mycopur prevents spawn fungus. Simultaneous addition of sera ectopur increases the efficacy and leads to a quicker recovery of the fish. After recovery of the fish, we recommend a partial water change (conditioning with sera aqutan) and filtering with sera Super Activ filter carbon in order to remove remedy residuals from the aquarium water.


For prevention and combat of fungus and ectoparasites in fresh and salt water. sera ectopur contains various oxygen-releasing salts. Due to its special composition the oxygen is released over a prolonged period of time. sera ectopur is ideally suitable to support a treatment with sera remedies.
An addition of 5 g sera ectopur to 50 litres of water once every fortnight reduces stress and prevents oxygen deficiencies

Oodinopur A

sera Oodinopur A reliably combats fresh and salt water Oodinium (velvet disease). It contains copper and must therefore not be used in saltwater aquariums with invertebrates. We recommend treating the fish in a quarantine aquarium. 15 ml sera Oodinopur A are sufficient for 600 litres of water. During the treatment with sera Oodinopur A, active carbon must be removed from the filter. Protein skimmers and ozonizers must be switched off. After recovery of the fish, we recommend a partial water change (conditioning with sera aqutan.


sera baktopur reliably combats bacterial diseases such as mouth and fin rot and greyish-white resp. fluff-like areas on the skin and the fins of freshwater fish. sera ectopur increases the activity of sera baktopur

baktopur direct

sera baktopur direct reliably and rapidly combats severe bacterial diseases such as dropsy or bleeding inflammations resp. ulcers in fresh and salt water fish.
Please bear in mind: This highly effective remedy also affects useful filter bacteria. Therefore, the filter should be disconnected from the aquarium and run with a bucket of water for the duration of the treatment. One tablet is sufficient for 50 litres of aquarium water.


Combination of vitamins and trace elements for fresh and salt water aquariums in order to enhance the colours and improve the well-being of the fish. sera activant promotes the readiness to spawn, prevents deficiencies and helps newly introduced fish become acclimatized. Weak or ill pond fish are directly fed a tablet sera activant.


Emulgated multi-vitamin preparation for strengthening fish during or after diseases, after introducing them into a new aquarium, for breeding and to vitaminize food for fish fry. sera fishtamin is also suitable for strengthening pond fish before and after hibernation. It can be added directly into the aquarium water. It is better, however, to drip 6 - 7 drops per fish directly onto the food a few minutes before feeding once a week. Pond fish should get 10 - 12 drops sera fishtamin per fish every day for three weeks


Water treatment against snails, Hydra and discworms in freshwater aquariums. Two hours after application a partial water change of 30 % is be carried out. By doing so, suck the paralysed snails out of the aquarium. After this removal, the remaining water is conditioned with a full dose (calculated to the total content of the aquarium) sera aqutan and filled with fresh water. The treatment is to be repeated after one week and after two weeks in order also to remove hatching young snails (spawn is not combated). It is important to observe the fish closely during the treatment. Accelerated breathing and gasping for air is a symptom for overdosing. In this case, a water change must be carried out immediately.  


Water treatment against algae in freshwater aquariums. Due to their solid structure, beard algae may seem unaffected for several weeks after they are dead before they dissolve.
Attention: Snails do not tolerate sera algopur.
15 ml are sufficient for 600 litres of water.
In severe cases, repeat the treatment after three days.


TetraAqua® AquaSafe

Tap Water conditioner that immediately transforms aggressive tap water into safe aquarium water suitable for fish.

TetraAqua® EasyBalance

Long-term maintenance of a healthy habitat for fish and plants for over six months.

TetraAqua® AquaSafe for Goldfish

Tap water conditioner specially developed for goldfish and other coldwater fish.

TetraAqua® Bactozym

Ensures immediate bioactivity in the filter and aquarium

TetraAqua® Nitrate Minus

For the permanent reduction of the nitrate content. Removes an important algae nutrient, leading to a long-term improvement of the water quality, thus reducing care requirements.

TetraAqua® pH/KH Minus

For the controlled reduction of pH and carbonate hardness values.

TetraAqua® pH/KH Plus

For the optimum adjustment of pH and carbonate hardness values.

TetraAqua® ToruMin

Creates natural black water.

TetraAqua® TetraVital

Promotes vitality, well-being and the exotic natural colouring of fish.

TetraAqua® AlguMin

Mild biological treatment for combating algae.

TetraAqua® Algetten

For the prevention and long-term combating of algae.

TetraAqua® Algizit

Eradicates even stubborn algae problems.

TetraMedica® MarinOopharm

Ornamental fish remedy, specially developed to meet the requirements of the marine aquarium. Due to its unique combination of antibacterial and anti-parasitic substances, it can be used to successfully treat the most frequently occurring diseases in marine ornamental fish.

TetraMedica® GeneralTonic

Effective medicinal product for bacterial infections, ectoparasitic diseases, fungal diseases and wounds in ornamental fish.

TetraMedica® FungiStop

Effective medicinal product for combating Achlya and Saprolegnia fungal infections, bacterial mucous membrane infections and infectious wounds in tropical ornamental fish.

TetraMedica® ContraIck

Effective medicinal product for white spot and other dermatozoons in tropical ornamental fish, such as Costia and Chilodonella.

TetraMedica® GoldOomed

Medicinal product for goldfish and other coldwater ornamental fish for combating bacterial infections, ectoparasitic diseases, fungal infections and wounds.



CUPRAZIN (Protozoacide/Fungicide) :
For the treatment of Whitespot, Costia and other Fungal infections in seawater aquaria only. Do not use in aquaria containing invertebrates, macro algae, Sharks, Rays, or Harlequin Tuskfish.
Whitespot, Oodinium, Benedenia, Trichodina and fungal infections are amongst the fastest killing organisms and therefore, once recognised should be treated immediately. With this in mind you are advised, when unsure of an ailment's diagnostic background to automatically use CUPRAZIN as directed. CUPRAZIN'S formula is designed to be low stress-inducing, gradually increasing concentration to effective levels. Once this level is achieved addition of the product may be stopped. CUPRAZIN should be used to treat all newly purchased sea fishes except sharks, rays, Harlequin Tuskfish, invertebrates and other related species. In cases where these creatures are present use MYXAZIN or OCTOZIN as an alternative. CUPRAZIN should not be used in those systems which contain any invertebrates. This includes crustaceans.
Suitable for seawater and brackish water aquaria.

MYXAZIN (bactericide):
A treatment for Ulcers, Fin-Rot, Body Rot and other bacterial related diseases in all aquaria
MYXAZIN lowers the count of harmful bacteria in aquarium water, treating Fin Rot, Body Rot, Ulcers, Sores and other bacterial infections. MYXAZIN will also help to control Pop - Eye Disease, Cloudy Eyes and Mouth Fungus. MYXAZIN should be used daily until symptoms disappear (typically this would be between 3 and 5 applications). MYXAZIN can also be used to sterilise nets and live foods such as Daphnia and Tubifex, for treating Whitespot in seawater aquaria containing invertebrates. MYXAZIN is mild on fish, highly biodegradable and effective against a wide range of fish health problems. Suitable for seawater, tropical freshwater and coldwater aquaria.

OCTOZIN (Flagellated Protozoa) :
For the treatment of "Hole-in the-Head", Spironucleus, Dropsy, Malawi Bloat, Sleeping Sickness and Whitespot in all aquaria. OCTOZIN is a treatment for internal parasites such as those which cause Sleeping Sickness, Hole - In - The - Head, Seawater Angelfish and Clownfish Disease, Malawi Bloat Disease and also early stages of Dropsy. OCTOZIN may also be used to treat Whitespot in seawater aquaria where CUPRAZIN cannot be used. OCTOZIN is harmless to invertebrates and algae when used as directed. You will require three separate days of treatment to complete the course. OCTOZIN is active for up to 3 days after the last day of use. Although internal parasites are destroyed instantly, external signs of improvement to the fish may take up to 7 days.

PARAGON (General Tonic)
For use in seawater, freshwater and coldwater aquaria. The product slowly releases oxygen in safe amounts destroying any pathogens and parasites present and beneficially raises the REDOX level in the systems, improves inhabitants health and the filtration efficiency
When added to aquarium/pond water, PARAGON slowly releases nascent, moatomic oxygen in safe amounts. After this rare form of oxygen has destroyed any pathogens and parasites present it beneficially raises the REDOX potential (oxygen levels) in the aquarium. This in turn benefits all forms of aquatic life. Do not use PARAGON on Discus species

PROTOZIN (Protozoacide/Fungicide)
For the treatment of Whitespot, Fungus, Velvet and Costia in tropical freshwater and coldwater aquaria only. Do not use when mormyrids (i.e. Elephant Nose, Dolphin Fish), Sturgeon and Sterlets are present. PROTOZIN is used for the control of all protozoan and fungal infections e.g Whitespot, Fungus, Neon Tetra Disease, Velvet, Costiasis and Trichodiniasis. You will require 4 separate applications to complete the course of treatment. By gently increasing the treatment concentration over days 1, 2 and 3 the product does not burden the already stressed animals with a hard hitting formula. The final dose on day 6 is a preventative measure to try and ensure the organism does not re-occur. PROTOZIN's properties are highly effective at treating all its target organisms. Do not use when rays or momyrids are present.

STERAZIN (parasiticide)
For the treatment of Gill and Body Flukes. Do not use when crustaceans (i.e. Crabs, Shrimps), echinoderms (i.e. Sea Urchins, Starfish), s/w Sharks, Rays, Piranha, Sturgeon and Sterlets are present. STERAZIN is used or the control of gill and body parasites which cause fish to flick when no symptoms are visible to the unaided eye. STERAZIN will also aid the control of internal parasites such as Round Worm, Thread Worm, and Intestinal Worm. In order to destroy the parasites in all stages of their life cycle you will need to use the product on days 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10. STERAZIN may also be used to aid the sterilisation of aquatic plants and is highly biodegradable. Do not use when crustaceans, echinoderms, rays, seawater sharks, pirahna, sturgeon or sterlets and related species are present. In these instances use Waterlife PARAGON. Suitable for seawater, tropical freshwater and coldwater aquaria

We wish to thank these companies for responding to our request to supply their lists.

Chris Andrews, Adrian Exell and Neville Carrington. "The Interpet Manual of Fish Diseases". Salamander Books Limited, UK, 1988.
Dick Mills "Tropical Aquarium Fishes", Tetra Press, Salamander Books Limited, UK, 1997.
Paul V. Loiselle "The Cichlid Aquarium", Tetra Press, 1994.
Edward J. Noga "Fish Disease, Diagnosis and Treatment", Mosby-Year Book, Inc, 1996.
Physician's Desk Reference (PDR) Medical Economics Company, Inc., 53
rd Edition, 1999.

Continued in next page

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